This text describes in chronology the evolution of the refining processes of metals from the elaboration of arsenical bronze, the obtaining of iron, the refining of steel in converters and the refining of ferronickel in furnace crucible.
This work is not a scientific text or the product of an isolated research. In the first part, I present to the reader how the technique of purifying copper and iron is developed up to refining steel on an industrial scale. In the second part, I refer to the metallurgical processes that were developed to refine the crude ferronickel produced in electric reduction furnaces from nickel ore (laterites).
In relation to the practical process of refining ferronickel, the work is based on a series of experiences during my professional performance at Cerro Matoso S. A., of the BHP-Billiton group in Colombia, at Maria Cristina Corporation Industries Co in Iligan, Philippines and on Onça Puma of the group VALE / SA in Ourilândia do Norte, Brazil.
I have observed that, during the start-up and stabilization of commercial production, a series of accidents have occurred, attributed to design errors and ignorance of the operation, which have caused a series of problems that have forced the suspension of the operations with the economic consequences translated into losses for shareholders. I do not refer to capital investments, operational costs or the profitability of the processes.
On the other hand, by not having valid and pertinent information on the incidence of ferronickel refining processes carried out in the current Russian Federation, in China, and in India; I not refer, will to them without ignoring its technological development and its great importance and the development of ferronickel refining in the world. The preparation of this text is supported by bibliographical references that have been obtained from the literature, technical publications and electronic documents Taken from the Internet.